Hyperparathyroidism is a condition which is caused by excessive amounts of parathyroid hormone (PTH). The primary etiologies of hyperparathyroidism are, in decreasing order, adenoma, hyperplasia and cancer. Secondary etiologies include osteomalacia/rickets and renal osteodystrophy.
Clinical symptoms of hyperparathyroidism include: bone pain, brown tumors, pathologic fractures, renal stones and ulcers. Radiographic evidence include: brown tumors; salt and pepper skull; osteopenia/osteosclerosis; soft tissue calcification; scalloping or loss of phalangeal tissue; clavicular phalangeal tuft; distal erosion; soft tissue calcification and decreased bone density.
Laboratory findings in primary hyperparathyroidism show an increase in calcium, decrease in phosphate and an increase in PTH. Laboratory evidence in secondary hyperthyroidism indicates a decrease in calcium, an increase in renal phosphate and an increase in PTH. For ectopic, or malignant hyperparathyroidism the laboratory evidence is increased calcium, decreased phosphate and decreased PTH.
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